Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability
The Working Group II contribution to the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report assesses the impacts of climate change, looking at ecosystems, biodiversity, and human communities at global and regional levels. It also reviews vulnerabilities and the capacities and limits of the natural world and human societies to adapt to climate change.
The Summary for Policymakers (SPM) provides a high-level summary of the key findings of the Working Group II Report and is approved by the IPCC member governments line by line.Download SPM
|Chapter 1: Point of departure and key concepts|
|Chapter 2: Terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems and their services|
|Chapter 3: Ocean and coastal ecosystems and their services|
|Chapter 4: Water|
|Chapter 5: Food, fibre, and other ecosystem products|
|Chapter 6: Cities, settlements and key infrastructure|
|Chapter 7: Health, wellbeing and the changing structure of communities|
|Chapter 8: Poverty, livelihoods and sustainable development|
|Chapter 9: Africa|
|Chapter 10: Asia|
|Chapter 11: Australasia|
|Chapter 12: Central and South America|
|Chapter 13: Europe|
|Chapter 14: North America|
|Chapter 15: Small Islands|
|Chapter 16: Key risks across sectors and regions|
|Chapter 17: Decision-making options for managing risk|
|Chapter 18: Climate resilient development pathways|
|CCP1 - Biodiversity hotspots (land, coasts and oceans)
CCP1 assesses the impacts and vulnerability to climate change of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems considered to be biodiversity hotspots.
|CCP2 - Cities and settlements by the sea
CCP2 assesses climate change impacts and risks to coastal cities and settlements, their vulnerability as well as enabling conditions and options for adaptation.
|CCP3 - Deserts, semi-arid areas, and desertification
CCP3 assesses climate change impacts and risks to deserts and semi-arid areas, including desertification, as well as options for adaptation and climate resilient development.
|CCP4 - Mediterranean region
CCP4 assesses climate change impacts and risks, vulnerability as well as barriers and options for adaptation and climate resilient development in the Mediterranean region.
|CCP5 - Mountains
CCP5 assesses climate change impacts and risks, vulnerability as well as barriers and options for adaptation and climate resilient development in mountain regions.
|CCP6 - Polar regions
CCP6 assesses the climate change impacts and risks to ecosystems and human systems in Polar Regions, as well as options for adaptation and climate resilient development.
|CCP7 - Tropical forests
CCP7 assesses climate change impacts and risks, as well as barriers and options for adaptation and increasing climate resilience in tropical forests.